One of the characteristics of the Municipality of Vicopisano is the high number of villages covered by its administration (San Giovanni alla Vena, Uliveto, Lugnano, Caprona and Cucigliana, plus the small villages of Cevoli, Noce and Guerrazzi), thus differing from the neighbouring Municipalities, that cover a maximum of 2-3 other villages.
Another peculiarity is that these “administrative subdivisions” can hardly be considered as such, as they all have their own distinctiveness, well representing a traditional Tuscan feature: the “parochialism”. 
The reasons for this radicalism are to be found in the different histories that these villages have experienced: actually, each of them was featured by a specific activity, different commercial outlets and interests. The result has been a strong community-minded spirit. This leads us to consider that, in the age of globalization with a trend towards the levelling off of culture, these conditions of dissimilarity and differentiation can only be observed with interest, being aware that differences mean enrichment and not division.
In this paragraph, we will analyze the History and the cultural patrimony of each of these villages and hamlets. The villages administered by the Municipality of Vicopisano are all of them located along Via Vicarese, between the course of the river Arno and the slopes of Monte Pisano, in a natural environment which has always been scarcely fit for extensive cultivations, unlike the immediate surrounding of Vicopisano village. This circumstance has undoubtedly influenced the development of these villages, which were compelled to desert agriculture and devote themselves to other activities: pottery making (San Giovanni and Cugliana), limestone mining (Uliveto and Caprona, and later San Giovanni) and river transports carried out by the Boatmen Corporation (all the villages).
The place names and some archaeological findings clearly indicate the Roman origin of most of these urban settlements: Cucigliana, Lugnano and Caprona were most likely seats of Roman rural villas. However, due to its particular morphology and the presence of an important river course, this area must have been inhabited since more ancient times (this theory has been bolstered by the recent discoveries of archaic Etruscan findings on the relieves facing the river Arno).
All the urban settlements along Monte Pisano, Vicopisano included, held in Middle Ages a particular importance for the politic and economic life of Pisa. They represented points of military defence for the territory and centres of landed estates for some of the most outstanding families of the Aristocracy of Pisa. After the decline of the strategic and military importance of the area, due to the conquest by Florence, the important families of noble birth didn’t stop their investments in the landed property of this fertile country, particularly fit for diversified cultivation. Since the 17th century, they chose these pleasant and quiet spots to build their sumptuous residential villas, still present in the district .